Classic Architecture - Columns
The three major classical orders are Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian. The orders describe the form and decoration of Greek and later Roman columns and continue to be widely used in architecture today. The doric order is the simplest and shortest, with no decorative foot, vertical fluting, and a flared capital. Ionic columns are taller and thinner with a decorative foot and scroll-shaped volutes on the capital. The most complex order is the corinthian order that is tall and thin than others and features a decorative foot, volutes and acanthus leaves on the capital like combine all of them.
Greek - Doric
When: 700 BC. - 480 BC.
Where: Ancient Greek
Characteristic: basic, simple round and heavy
The first type of column is “doric” you can remember it means the basic, simple round shape and it is just functional. This architecture element is coming from ancient Greece and it has represented the Neoclassical style which is shown the simplicity of geometric forms. Each doric column has twenty vertical and parallel grooves called flutes. The Doric column is heavier and thicker than the other ancient columns. The most famous architecture building that uses Doric columns is Parthenon. Doric column is dominated from 700 BC to 480 BC.
Hellenistic - Ionic
When: 570 BC. - 320 BC.
Where: Eastern Grece
Characteristic: volute, horn and middle era
Example: Athena Nike
The second type of column is “ionic” you can remember it has spiral whorl design like ram’s horn and it has middle ornaments compared to others. This architecture element is coming from eastern Grece and it represents the Hellenistic style of architecture. These types of columns supported the heavy roofs much better and they provide build larger buildings. Ionic columns are taller and slimmer than the Doric columns. The most famous building which uses Ionic columns is the temple of Athena Nike in Athens. Ionic columns are dominated between 570 BC to 320 BC.
Roman - Corinthian
When: 70 BC. - 15 BC.
Where: Ancient Greek
Characteristic: ornate, acanthus leaves and late-era
The third and final type of column is “corinthian” you can remember it is the most organic column and it has lots of ornaments top part. This architectural element is coming from early ancient Greek and it represents the Baroque style of architecture. These type of columns are included lots of ornaments and the shapes are coming from acanthus leaves which is the most common plant forms to make foliage ornament and decoration. The most famous building that uses Corinthian columns is Pantheon in Italy. Corinthian columns are dominated between 70 BC to 15 BC.
Bonus: There is a building that has all the columns are including with logical order it is Colosseum. The Colosseum includes all the ancient architectural columns that style recognizable mainly by the columns employed. The order of the ground floor half columns is the Doric order, on the second floor the semicolumns are Ionic and on the third floor, it is Corinthian. So, the architectural structure shows every type of column on separate floors respectively.